Dark spots are caused by hypersecretion and uneven distribution of melanin, as well as an accumulation of lipofuscin (oxidized lipids and proteins) in the upper layers of the epidermis.
This natural phenomenon of hyperpigmentation is often caused by exposure to the sun (63% of dark spots are due to the sun).
Other causes include:
The aging process
Intrinsic skin aging is accompanied by phenomena of dullness, drying-out and pigmentation problems. The main pigmentation disorder is senile lentigo (age spots) which appears around the age of 50 on exposed skin parts, particularly on the back of the hands and sometimes on the face. These are small, smooth, brown marks from ranging a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
These skin disorders emerge gradually. They affect more than 90% of women over the age of 50.
Some people, particularly some ethnic groups whose skin is more yellow, more olive or darker, are genetically predisposed to spots.
Hormonal imbalances (24% of spots are due to pregnancy hormones)
Pregnancy: The “mask of pregnancy” is an epidermal melasma also known as chloasma. It tipically appears in the second half of pregnancies. It particularly affects dark-hair women with phototype IV skin. This common discoloration occurs suddenly but sharply reduces or disappears completely after pregnancy, once regular periods return. It is recommended not to treat pigment spots due to pregnancy until six months after the birth, as the stimulation of the melanocytes normally stops after pregnancy. Residual pigmentation can however remain for months or even years.
The borders of the spots are irregular, and are spread symmetrically on forehead, cheeks, temples, upper lip or chin. This homogeneous sheet sometimes includes a scattering of lenticular spots.
Contraceptive pills: Pigment spots appear on some women who take birth control pills and expose their skin to sun. This hypermelanosis of the face, benign but unaesthetic, is mainly seen in women with brown, phototype IV skin.
The contours of the spots are irregular, and are spread symmetrically on forehead, cheeks, temples, upper lip or chin. This homogeneous sheet sometimes includes a scattering of lenticular spots.
Hormonal disorders: Many hormones are involved in hyperpigmentation. In women, sex hormones (above all oestrogen and progesterone) vary in intensity with cell cycle, pregnancy, the use of contraceptives, and menopause (HRT) and are the main factors involved in hyperpigmentation. Other hormones, often synthesized by hypophysis (such as ACTH), can also play a role: some hyperpigmentations are associated with endocrine diseases.
Some medications or antibiotics (tetracycline for example) can cause dark spots to appear on some people. The same is true for chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments. Normally, the spots resulting from these treatments disappear in about six months.
As an example, the topical application of a synthetic perfume followed by exposure to sun makes cells hypertoxic and can cause spots to appear. The same is true of some essential oils.
Many other factors also affect the skin’s general appearance and the complexion: lifestyle, skin type, tobacco use, age, etc.
The Biologique Recherche Solution Serum PIGM 400 is specially formulated to prevent dark spots from appearing, reduce the appearance of existing brown spots, and lighten the complexion and make it uniform. This concentration of active ingredients acts on 3 levels:
It limits the melanogenesis process completely and limits, in a particularly targeted way, the function and characteristics of the melanosomes.
It regulates lipofuscin production.
Finally, its photo-protectors and anti-free radicals protect the skin.
- Thanks to its 6 concentrated active ingredients, Serum PIGM 400 brightens the skin.
- This face care acts on 4 stages of the melanogenesis and melanosome regulation (controls size, number, maturation and migration).
Double control of the lipofuscin accumulation that causes dark spots.
A protection against free radicals that slows skin ageing.
A dual action thanks to a combination of lightening and protective active ingredients.
An effective treatment that is gentle on the epidermis.
A formula boosted with brightening active ingredients, twice as concentrated as the cream, and an enhanced efficiency in inhibiting melanin synthesis.
Using a combination of Creme PIGM 400 and Serum PIGM 400 visibly brightens dark spots and gives a better complexion.
The pump bottle allows for better conservation of the formula and a more precise dosage for easy application.
Directions for use - Apply Serum PIGM 400 before Creme PIGM 400, in the morning and/or evening on the entire face to illuminate the complexion and/or topically on the dark spots (face, forearms, cleavage and hands). Cautions: Protect the skin from the sun during the use of the product. Keep using Serum PIGM 400 morning and evening until the desired effect is obtained on dark spots and/or on your complexion.